The Institutes Glossary


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Five categories that are assessed to detect symptom magnification or fabrication of pain: tenderness, simulation, distraction, regional disturbances, and overreaction. A patient who tests positive in three categories may be magnifying symptoms or fabricating back pain.
An examination to detect symptom magnification or fabrication of back pain. The examiner looks for improvement in the patient’s ability to function while the patient is distracted by performing other tests that appear to be unrelated to the low back. A patient who claims to be unable to touch the toes while standing, but who can easily grab the ankles while seated on the exam table, may be fabricating the back pain.
The time period, usually the first thirty days or more of a disability, when benefits are not paid, helping to eliminate small claims.
A statutory time period in which the injured worker must wait after an injury before benefits can begin.
A deductible expressed in terms of the time delay between when a loss occurs and when coverage begins.
A deductible expressed in terms of the time delay between when a loss occurs and when coverage begins.
The intentional relinquishment of a known right.
The endorsement in which a workers compensation insurer agrees not to enforce its right of subrogation against any organization listed in the endorsement’s schedule.
Clause stating that the insurer will waive premiums due during the period of disability if the insured becomes totally disabled before a certain age.
An endorsement that provides that the insurer will waive premiums due during the period of disability if the insured becomes totally disabled before a certain age.
A special type of waiver that is a pre-loss voluntary relinquishment by an insurer of its right to seek reimbursement of its payment for damages that were caused by a party other than the insured.
A settlement that involves lump-sum payments made by insurers to settle claims and that does not require a release from the claimant.
The framing that provides the support for ceilings, upper floor, and roof; also provides the base to which wall sheathing is connected.
The outside covering installed over the wall framing, usually made of plywood.
A sheet material composed of a gypsum filler and faced with paper.
Federal statute enacted to supplement the Defense Base Act and shift the costs of workers compensation from those engaged in such work and injured by a war risk hazard to the U.S. government.
A reinsurance treaty clause that excludes loss or damage resulting from organized war or warlike activities.
A minor child or an incompetent who is under the legal custody of a court.
An extension of open cargo policy that covers property being temporarily warehoused after transit has ended and coverage under the regular open cargo policy has ceased.
Policy that covers warehouse operators against liability for damage to the property of others being stored in operators’ warehouses.
A legal document that provides title to the goods in storage and assures delivery to the holder of the receipt.
Clause in open cargo policies that covers the insured cargo during the ordinary course of transit (including land transit) from the time the cargo leaves the point of shipment until it is delivered to its final destination.
A type of security, usually issued with a bond or preferred stock, that entitles the holder to buy a specific amount of common stock at a specified price during a specified period.
A reinsurance treaty clause that specifies conditions with which the primary insurer must comply to ensure coverage under the treaty.
A promise made by an insured that guarantees compliance with the insurer's conditions.
A written or an oral statement in a contract that certain facts are true.
An international agreement that governs the liability of air carriers engaged in international service.
A type of private fire detection system in which individuals are employed to patrol premises when a business is closed.
A type of private fire detection system in which security personnel make regular rounds of a premises and record visits to each station along the patrol route by inserting a special key in a clock or by using magnetic key cards.
A type of loss that occurs when water or steam accidentally escapes from pipes that are not part of a sprinkler system or from any appliance that uses water.
A sensor that detects the presence of water.
An automatic fire sprinkler system that discharges droplets of water with a predetermined pattern, particle size, velocity, and density; commonly used to protect electrical equipment and tanks containing flammable liquid or gas.
A factor used to calculate the public protection classification for a municipality; considers the parts of the city protected by fire hydrants, maximum daily water consumption, ability of the water system to deliver the needed fire flow, and the condition of fire hydrants.
A form of efficient market hypothesis that asserts that the current stock price reflects all historical information about the stock’s price fluctuations.
Insurance that covers loss of business income and extra expenses resulting from adverse or unexpected weather.
A technique to extract data from websites.
The average of the cost of equity and the cost of debt calculated according to the proportion that each represents of the whole invested capital.
An exclusion that typically does not allow coverage for loss caused by the weight of the load exceeding the manufacturer’s rated capacity of the equipment.
The expenditure for public assistance and institutional care excluded from a governmental entity's "total operating expenditures" premium base.
A perforated pipe on a construction site that is driven into the earth to collect underground water.
Automatic fire sprinkler systems with pipes that always contain water under pressure, which is released immediately when a sprinkler head opens.
An approach to determining eligible surplus lines insurers in which the state insurance regulator compiles a list of eligible surplus lines insurers.
Life insurance that provides lifetime protection, accrues cash value, and has premiums that remain unchanged during the insured's lifetime.
Any insurance entity that serves as an intermediary between an insurance retailer and the insurer.
A wireless connection that allows devices to communicate and provides high-speed access to the internet.
An area where residential and other structures are built along the edges of forests or brushy or grassy areas, exposing the inhabitants and their structures to combustion of wildland fuels.
The cooling effect of wind speed in colder weather that can drastically reduce the stated temperature as indicated by a thermometer.
The measure of the motion of the air with respect to the surface of the earth covering a unit distance over a unit time.
A storm consisting of violent wind capable of causing damage.
An electronic transfer of funds directly from the payer bank to the payee bank.
A wireless network consisting of individual sensors placed at various locations to exchange data.
A person who has seen or heard an accident and can furnish evidence regarding the cause of the accident and the damages sustained by the parties involved.
A person who administers tests and work assignments to an injured person and formulates a vocational rehabilitative plan.
A term that applies to two exceptions to the copyright ownership rule: works created in the course of the author’s employment and works created on commission.
Consists of one or more workers who produce an output.
Temporary job modifications that occur when an injured worker gradually readjusts to the physical demands of a job.
An auditor's records of audit procedures, including tests performed, information obtained, and conclusions reached in developing the premium base.
A sequence of steps designed to produce a specific product or provide a specific service.
Apply to the activities and operations that produce output. They establish targets for operations and help coordinate employees, equipment, and material.
A listing of jobs, including bids and work in progress, at a given time.
The surety's expression of the aggregate risk appetite for each contractor.
A contract in which the work program line determines risk sharing for reinsurance.
Work activities that use tasks, materials, tools, and equipment similar to those used in an actual job.
The process of segmenting a population of drivers into workable, statistically valid subgroups for purposes of classification and ratemaking, based on identifiable group member similarities and common characteristics.
A system that pays lost wages, medical and vocational rehabilitation expenses, and death benefits to injured workers or their dependents for employment-related injuries and diseases.
Insurance that covers (1) benefits an employer is obligated to pay under workers compensation laws and (2) employee injury claims made against the employer that are not covered by workers compensation laws.
The policy used in most states to provide workers compensation and employers liability insurance.
Insurance that provides coverage for benefits an employer is obligated to pay under workers compensation laws.
A statute that obligates employers, regardless of fault, to pay specified medical, disability, rehabilitation, and death benefits for their employees’ job-related injuries and diseases.
The series of steps or actions that must be completed, in sequence, to accomplish a particular task.
A liquidity measure that is calculated as the difference between current assets and current liabilities on the balance sheet.
A liquidity measure that is calculated by subtracting current liabilities from current assets. It is used to determine a company’s ability to finance immediate operations (to buy inventory, finance growth, and obtain credit).
An excess of loss reinsurance agreement with a low attachment point.
The layers of coverage in an organization’s insurance program that are most often called on to pay claims.
A partner who performs regular duties and draws a salary independent of profits.
Any physical assault, threatening behavior, or verbal abuse occurring in a work setting.
A revenue collection scheme that taxes domestically incorporated companies on their total earnings from both domestic and international activities.
A risk management program for large construction projects in which the sponsor selects coverages for all contractors and subcontractors working on the project, enabling participating contractors to reduce their bid by the cost of the coverage it provides.
A form of controlled construction insurance plan with which one insurer covers all or most of the contractors working on a project.
An insurance policy or a series of policies written to cover a large construction project, including all persons and entities working on that project.
An appellate court’s order directing a lower court to deliver its record in a case for appellate review.
A higher court’s written command that requires a lower court to submit a court record for inspection and determination of possible errors in judgment.
A written court command that requires a defendant to perform or not perform an action required by law or to give authority to a party to have the act performed.
A written court order that requires a defendant to hand over property for which the plaintiff alleges a claim, has secured a lien on, and has reason to believe the defendant will dispose of, sell, or remove from the court’s jurisdiction.
A program allowing private insurers to write flood insurance under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
A program allowing private insurers to write flood insurance under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
The total premium on all policies written (put into effect) during a particular period.
Any actual or alleged error, misstatement, misleading statement, act or omission, or neglect or breach of duty.
A legal cause of action that exists for the survivor of the deceased.
A cause of action an employee may have against an employer for illegal termination of employment.
A lawsuit that arises out of an employee claim that the employer has wrongfully discharged the employee.
A lawsuit by or on behalf of a child with birth defects, alleging that, but for the doctor-defendant’s negligent advice, the parents would not have conceived the child or would have terminated the pregnancy so as to avoid the pain and suffering resulting from the child’s defects.
A lawsuit by a parent for damages resulting from a pregnancy following a failed sterilization.